The first is the DC motor drive system. The electric vehicles before the 1990s were almost all DC motor driven. The DC motor has low efficiency, large volume and high quality, and the commutator and brush limit its speed. Its maximum speed is 6000-8000r/min. However, due to its shortcomings, in addition to small cars, electric vehicles rarely use DC motor drive systems.
The second is the induction motor AC drive system. The system is a new technology developed in the 1990s and is still in the stage of development and improvement. The motor generally adopts a three-phase AC induction motor with a rotor squirrel cage structure. The motor controller adopts vector control frequency conversion speed regulation. The utility model has the advantages of high efficiency, small volume, small mass, simple structure, maintenance-free, easy cooling and long service life. The system has a wide speed range and can realize low-speed constant torque, high-speed constant-power operation, but AC motor control. The cost is higher. At present, most of the world's most famous electric vehicles use induction motor AC drive systems.
The third type is a permanent magnet synchronous motor AC drive system, wherein the permanent magnet synchronous motor includes a brushless DC motor and a three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor, and the permanent magnet synchronous motor and the brushless DC motor are compared with the permanent magnet synchronous motor AC drive system. The efficiency is higher, the volume is the smallest, the quality is the smallest, and there are no disadvantages such as the commutator and the brush of the DC motor. However, the permanent magnet materials of this type of drive system have high cost and are only used in low-power electric vehicles. However, permanent magnet synchronous motors are the most promising high-performance motors and are the development direction of electric vehicle motors.
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