The automatic guided vehicle is equipped with an automatic guiding device such as electromagnetic or optical, which can be driven on a prescribed navigation path, and is a transport trolley with safety protection and various transfer functions.
At present, the working environment of AGV can be divided into indoor environment and outdoor environment. More systems work indoors or indoors as the main workplace. Because indoor is universal, it can provide theoretical and technical support for the development of mobile robots used in various occasions. Indoor environment is regarded as structured environment, with stable light and limited environmental complexity. Signs on structured roads often have obvious characteristics, such as color, width, boundary, etc. It makes it possible to extract features with simpler methods in road recognition, and then restore road scenes.
AGV applications range from manufacturing, warehousing, post offices, ports, airports, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, food, chemicals, nuclear materials, and photosensitive materials.
Research navigation is to make the machine move purposefully without human intervention and to complete specific tasks. Therefore, the flexibility of the logistics system depends on the navigation method, and the navigation method used in the system of different applications is also Diversified.
Guidance and navigation are different. The guidance is to calculate the operating parameters of the next cycle based on the current state data. Only the relative position is independent of the global coordinates. Navigation refers to determining its position and heading. The main guiding and navigation methods of AGV are:
The principle of direct coordinate guidance is: firstly, the driving area is divided into a number of standard uniform coordinate small areas by the positioning block, and then the number of small areas passing through during traveling is counted, thereby guiding. There are two forms commonly used: photoelectric and electromagnetic. The former divides the small areas of coordinates by different colors and then counts them with photoelectric devices that are sensitive to color; the latter divides the coordinates by using magnetic blocks or metal blocks, and then counts them using metal-sensitive electromagnetic induction devices.
The advantage of this guiding method is that the path modification is simple, the guiding reliability is good, and it is not affected by the environmental background. The disadvantage is that the installation positioning block is complicated, and the guiding position is completely determined by the size and number of the positioning block, and the workload is large and the precision is low.
Electromagnetic guidance is one of the more used guiding methods. The buried wire has electromagnetic frequency. The frequency in the wire is turned on or off by a device called “ground controller”. The frequency guide travels along the buried route. The guiding method is mature in technology, economical and reliable, the lead is concealed, not easy to be stained and destroyed, the guiding principle is simple and convenient for communication and free from sound and light interference; but the flexibility is poor, the flatness of the ground is high, and the path is difficult to change and expand.
Optical guidance is based on the principle that the propagation process of a single light source does not change. A reflective light-stable ribbon is placed on the travel path, and a photoelectric sensor capable of transmitting and receiving light sources is mounted on the vehicle, and the emission and detection are detected in real time. The signal to adjust the direction of the vehicle's operation. Its advantage is that the guiding line is less expensive to install and has better flexibility, but it is very sensitive to the pollution of the ribbon and mechanical wear, the environmental requirements are too high, and the guiding reliability is poor.
Laser infrared navigation is equipped with a scanner capable of transmitting and receiving laser infrared rays. A sufficient number of laser reflectors are installed around the guiding area, and the laser beam is emitted by the laser scanner, and the laser beam reflected by the reflecting plate is collected, and the triangle beam is passed through the triangle geometry. The operation determines the guidance of its current position and heading. The advantage of the navigation method is accurate positioning, flexible driving path, and can be adapted to various on-site environments; the disadvantages are high manufacturing cost, complicated position calculation, and limited error correction capability against light interference.
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